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2019年中考英语语法知识

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掌握中考英语语法知识,绝对能考个好成绩。小编在此献上英语语法使用技巧,希望对你有所帮助。

动词时态、语态

i. 要点

1、 一般现在时

(1) 表示经常发生的动作或现在存在的状态,常与sometimes, always, often, every day等时间状语连用。如:sometimes, we go swimming after school.

(2) 表示客观真理、科学事实等。如:the earth goes round the sun.

2、 现在进行时

(1) 表示说话时或现阶段正在进行的动作,常与now, at present等时间状语连用。如:

what are you doing now?

(2) 和always, continually等连用,表一种经常反复的动作,常含有某种情感。如:

he is always doing good deeds.

3、 现在完成时

主要表示动作发生在过去,对现在仍有影响,或动作一直延续到现在,或可能还要继续下去,常与just, already, so far, once, never 等词连用。如:have you ever been to beijing?

4、一般将来时

表示将来某一时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,常与tomorrow, next year等连用。如:

i'll meet you at the school gate tomorrow morning.

we're going to see a film next monday.

5、一般过去时

表示在过去某一时间或某一阶段内发生的动作或存在的状态,常与yesterday, last year, in 1998, a moment ago等词连用。如:it happened many years ago.

6、过去进行时

表示过去某一时刻或某一时期正在发生的动作。如:

what were you doing this time yesterday?

7、 过去完成时

表示在过去某一时间或动作之前已经发生或完成了的动作。如:

the train had already left before we arrived.

8、一般过去将来时

表示说话人从过去的角度来看将来发生的动作。如:

he said he would come, but he didn't.

9、被动语态 被动语态的时态,以give为例。

短语动词

i. 要点

英语中有许多短语动词在意义上是一个整体,其用法有的相当于及物动词,有的相当于不及物动词,有的兼有及物动词和不及物动词的特征。英语短语动词的构成主要有以下六种:

(1) 动词+介词

常见的有look for, look after, send for, care about, ask for, laugh at, hear of (from), add to, lead to等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后。如:

don't laugh at others.

i didn't care about it.

(2) 动词+副词

常见的有give up, pick up, think over, find out, hand in, point out等。这类短语动词的宾语如果是名词,既可放在副词前边,又可放在副词后边;宾语如果是人称代词或反身代词,则要放在副词前边。如:you'll hand in your homework tomorrow.

please don't forget to hand it in.

(3) 动词+副词+介词

常见的有look down upon, go on with, break away from, add up to, catch up with等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如:

all his money added up to no more than $100.

after a short rest, he went on with his research work.

(4) 动词+名词+介词

常见的有take care of, make use of, pay attention to, make fun of 等。这类短语动词的宾语只能放在介词后边。如:you should pay attention to your handwriting.

we should make full use of our time.

(5) 动词+形容词

常见的有leave open, set free, cut open等。这类短语动词的宾语如果是名词,则宾语可放在形容词的前边,也可放在后边;宾语如果是人称代词或反身代词,则必须放在形容词前边。如:

the prisoners were set free.

he cut it open.

(6) 动词+名词

常见的有take place, make friends等。这类短语动词用作不及物动词。如:

this story took place three years ago.

i make friends with a lot of people.

(7)辨析

give away(让给,暴露) 和 give up(放弃,停止)

put away(放起,收起) 和 put out (扑灭)

turn up(出席,放大) 和 turn on (打开)

keep out(阻止) 和 keep off (不让靠近)

make up(编造,补上) 和 make out(辨认)

take off(脱,起飞) 和 take out(拿出)

ii. 例题

例1 it is wise to have some money ____ for old age.

a put away b kept up c given away d laid up

解析:该题正确答案为A。意为"存";keep up意为"继续";give away意为"分发";lay up"贮藏"。例2 here's my card. let's keep in ____.

a touch b relation c connection d friendship

解析:该题正确答案为a. keep in touch为短语动词,意为"保持联系"。

例3 ____! there's a train coming.

a look out b look around c look forward d look on

解析:该题选a. look out 意为"小心"。


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